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Smoke Point of Cooking Oils

Smoke Point of Cooking Oils
Dmytrii Minishev /123RF

Find out which oils can stand the heat and which ones will go up in smoke with our list of smoke points.

So, you know how we’re always cooking with animal fats like butter and vegetable oils like olive oil? Well, if you want your food to taste good and be healthy, then you have to know about the smoke point.

Every fat and oil has a unique smoke point (some higher than others). It’s the temperature at which the oil in your pan starts to break down and give off smoke. When that happens, the oil’s flavor and nutritional profile can change, and harmful compounds can form in the pan. In other words, it’s the temperature you don’t want to exceed when you’re using it.

Scientists can’t agree on just how harmful those compounds are. Some say that overheated oils can become bad for you, and others claim it’s not as bad as they say. Even so, there’s one thing that nobody can argue with: heating most oils past their smoke point makes them taste weird. Like, really weird. Like, acrid, bitter, or just off.

Even if you’re not too worried about the health risks, you still want to avoid that because it’s just going to leave your dish tasting weird. So, for the sake of taste, you want to make sure you’re using an oil with a smoke point that’s appropriate for the cooking method and the desired heat level.

Before we get to the specifics—we have a whole table of smoke points for you—I wanted to let you in on a little secret. The smoke point isn’t a fixed value. It can vary depending on how the oil was processed, stored, and handled. Although we talk of it as a number, it’s more like a range.

Besides, the smoke point can change as the oil is reused and reheated. So it’s something to keep in mind when you’re selecting and reusing oil, but it isn’t the only factor you need to consider. There are also things like flavor, nutritional content, and cost to think about. Keep that in mind.

Smoke Points of Fats and Oils

Cooking Fat/OilSmoke PointHeat
Avocado oil, refined520°F / 271°C / Gas Mark 10Highest
Rice bran oil490°F / 254°C / Gas Mark 10Highest
Mustard oil490°F / 254°C / Gas Mark 10Highest
Avocado oil, unrefined480°F / 249°C / Gas Mark 9High
Pomace oil465°F / 240°C / Gas Mark 9High
Clarified butter (ghee)450°F / 232°C / Gas Mark 8High
Corn oil450°F / 232°C / Gas Mark 8High
Palm oil450°F / 232°C / Gas Mark 8High
Peanut oil450°F / 232°C / Gas Mark 8High
Safflower oil450°F / 232°C / Gas Mark 8High
Soybean oil450°F / 232°C / Gas Mark 8High
Sunflower oil440°F / 227°C / Gas Mark 8Medium-high
Sesame oil410°F / 210°C / Gas Mark 7Medium-high
Canola oil400°F / 204°C / Gas Mark 6Medium-high
Tallow400°F / 204°C / Gas Mark 6Medium-high
Walnut oil400°F / 204°C / Gas Mark 6Medium-high
Grapeseed oil390°F / 199°C / Gas Mark 5Medium
Chicken fat (schmaltz)375°F / 190°C / Gas Mark 5Medium
Duck fat375°F / 190°C / Gas Mark 5Medium
Extra virgin olive oil375°F / 190°C / Gas Mark 5Medium
Turkey fat375°F / 190°C / Gas Mark 5Medium
Lard375°F / 190°C / Gas Mark 5Medium
Shortening360°F / 182°C / Gas Mark 4Medium
Butter350°F / 177°C / Gas Mark 4Medium-low
Coconut oil350°F / 177°C / Gas Mark 4Medium-low
Margarine325°F / 163°C / Gas Mark 3Medium-low
Flaxseed oil225°F / 107°C / Gas Mark ¼Low

How to Select Your Fats and Oils

Some fats and oils are refined, which means they’ve been processed to get rid of impurities. Others are unrefined, which means they’ve been extracted from the nut, seed, or fruit using cold methods.

Canola oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil are refined oils because they’re extracted with chemicals. Butter is churned from milk or cream, and extra virgin olive oil is pressed cold from the pulp of ripe olives, so they are unrefined.

Now, here’s the thing—refined oils are considered less healthy because they’ve been processed and don’t have as many nutrients as unrefined oils. But the upside is that they have a higher smoke point, which means they can handle higher heats without breaking down and producing smoke.

Unrefined oils are considered healthier because they’ve got all of those extra nutrients in there, but those nutrients burn at high heat, so their smoke point is lower. When you’re cooking with oil, you’ve got to think about whether you want the health benefits of an unrefined oil or the high-heat capabilities of a refined oil. So choosing oil is really a trade-off.

Remember that how healthy an oil is also depends on the type of fats—called lipids—that it contains. An oil can be unrefined and still contain a lot of saturated fats, which are considered bad for you.

In Summary

All fats and cooking oils have a smoke point, and it’s a good idea to pay attention to that when you’re picking out what you’re going to use to cook your food.

Fats and oils with a high smoke point are best for high-heat cooking methods like searing, grilling, broiling, and frying because they can handle the high heat without breaking down and producing smoke. Those with a low smoke point are better for medium-heat cooking, baking, and roasting because they won’t break down over moderate heat.

The next time you’re picking out a fat or oil for your cooking, keep the smoke point in mind and choose one that’s appropriate for the heat level you’ll be using.

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Dim is a food writer, cookbook author, and the editor of Home Cook World. His first book, Cooking Methods & Techniques, was published in 2022. He is a certified food handler with Level 1 and Level 2 Certificates in Food Hygiene and Safety for Catering, and a trained cook with a Level 3 Professional Chef Diploma.

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    1. Marilyn,

      Great question! We’ve updated the table to include coconut oil. It has a similar smoke point to that of butter and vegetable shortening — around 350-375°F, depending on a few factors.


  1. Why do my thawed, blotted dry, dredged in flour-cornmeal flounder fillets always stick though I preheat the pans, use avocado oil and use med- med high heat? Usually after 3-4 batches in each pan they turn out better. I don’t know if it’s the heat level, or maybe the fact the pans surface is “seasoned” by that time or what.??

    1. Hi, Dorothy,

      Great question, thank you for asking!

      If you’re using a cast-iron or carbon-steel pan, this may indicate that the seasoning has worn off. A well-seasoned pan should keep foods—including flour-dredged fish fillets—from sticking to the surface. Consider reseasoning it.

      If it’s a stainless-steel or porcelain-enameled pan, the carbs and proteins will form bonds with the cooking surface and stick to it at first. However, if you leave them to cook on one side without interruption, they will eventually detach themselves as the crust dries out and browns. Let the fillets cook for some time on each side before turning them over.

      The same goes for ceramic pans with a worn-out surface. These pans wear out after 50 to 100 uses, America’s Test Kitchen have found, after which they remain safe to cook in but lose their non-stick properties.

      Finally, if it’s a non-stick pan, meaning a pan with a PTFE coating, it’s a sign that the coating has eroded. This type of pans need to be replaced every few years (the rule of thumb is every 2-3 to 4-5 years, depending on the quality of the coating and frequency of cooking).

      Regardless, the reason the third or fourth batch of fillets isn’t as sticky is probably because the previous batches have left browned, flourous residue that acts as a barrier between the metal and the food.

      Hope my answer helped, and feel feel to reply with any follow-up questions!


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